White Papers

Grass Valley technologies are easy to understand with a variety of white papers that we produce on specific products or specific applications available within those products.

The Road to UHDTV White Paper

Television's next evolution, while its end result might be deemed revolutionary by some, is Ultra High Definition TV (UHDTV), the next improvement in HD. While the major standards surrounding the technology have been identified and many have been worked out, the name, oddly enough, is still in flux. For production, we refer to it as 4K; CE manufacturers call it Ultra High Definition (UHD); the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) calls it UHDTV1 or 2160p (UHDTV2 describes 8k). For purposes of this paper, it will be labeled UHDTV or UHDTV 4K.

Posted Dec 11 2014 (GVB-1-0270A-EN-WP) File Size: 1.0 MB

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Grass Valley Unveils the Gateway to the Future of IP White Paper

Broadcasters around the world are increasingly recognizing the advantages of the Internet Protocol (IP) and how it can improve their overall video distribution infrastructure — whether that be in-house, between buildings and even between remotely located cities. IP systems send and receive audio and video files as packets that are strung together and sent over less costly cabling that is much easier to install and maintain than legacy coax cable.

Posted Dec 11 2014 (GVB-1-0261A-EN_WP) File Size: 1.0 MB

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How 4K UHDTV, 3G/1080p and 1080i Will Shape the Future of Sports Television Production White Paper

Presented in depth in this paper is the significant growth in preference toward the 3G/1080p and 4K UHDTV formats. This is telling, considering that 3G/1080p is a format that currently has fairly limited applications in broadcast while 4K UHDTV is a format with no current transmission mechanism to bring content into homes.

Posted Dec 11 2014 (GVB-1-0256A-EN_WP) File Size: 766.0 KB

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Hybrid Routers: A New Era of Routing White Paper

When embedded audio first came about it was considered a universal solution for many audio woes, for which it has been very useful. However, as is the case with many new technologies unforeseen problems may arise, specifically, when the embedded content needs to be manipulated. Additionally, video and audio control rooms have to use both embedded and discrete audio coming from sources such as microphones.

Yes. By combining traditionally external processing equipment with discrete audio and video routers we have entered a new era in routing; the era of the hybrid router.

Posted Dec 08 2014 (GVB-1-0278A-EN-WP) File Size: 515.1 KB

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Television Playout Goes Green White Paper

As broadcasters strengthen their environmental credentials, and also look ahead to potentially higher electrical costs under 'cap and trade', they are now widening their perspective on energy saving to address the whole television process, from creation to transmission. This new emphasis on energy and space efficiency is now even impacting areas with lighter electrical consumption, such as playout equipment.

Posted Dec 05 2014 (GVB-1-0294A-EN-WP) File Size: 932.8 KB

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Streamlining HD Monitoring with Media Fingerprinting

Lowering the operating costs of television playout has become something of a mantra across the television industry, and it has been especially evident in playout monitoring. Since monitoring has traditionally been labor-intensive and also prone to human error, it has been a natural focus for many streamlining and automation projects.

The widespread adoption of multiviewers over recent years, as well as IP-based facility monitoring with signal probing, has opened up new, more efficient workflows. A single operator can now manage and monitor complex systems efficiently, with a consequent large improvement in productivity.

Posted Dec 05 2014 (GVB-1-0291A-EN-WP) File Size: 706.1 KB

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Practical Solutions to Common Audio Problems White Paper

When you ask station engineers about the technical issues they face on a day-to-day basis, it seems that the same bunch of audio problems just keep cropping up. The top three problems will typically be lip sync errors, maintaining the continuity of 5.1 and stereo, and excessively variable loudness levels. It's strange that audio should dominate the conversation, as it seems less complicated than video, especially now that we're getting deeper into 3 Gb/s and 3DTV. Anyhow, it's very evident that humble audio can still be very troublesome!

The good news is that these annoying and recurrent audio issues can now be very convincingly tamed, using a mix of highly practical, new technologies that are readily deployed.

Posted Dec 05 2014 (GVB-1-0286A-EN-WP) File Size: 1.9 MB

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Overcoming the Burden of VOD White Paper

For many broadcast engineers and operations managers, the number one headache right now is generating ondemand content. It takes up lots of their time, while generating low revenue streams in comparison to traditional, linear television. Evidently, this is not a viable long-term option, and this has prompted considerable interest in speeding the creation of nonlinear content, as well as improving the associated revenues.

Posted Dec 05 2014 (GVB-1-0285A-EN-WP) File Size: 745.8 KB

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Delivering Effective Loudness Control White Paper

Loudness control is probably the source of more complaints for broadcasters than any other technical issue. Viewers have grown weary of continuously adjusting the television volume, especially between programs and commercials.

Posted Dec 05 2014 (GVB-1-0276A-EN-WP) File Size: 1.0 MB

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Crafted Transmission for Multimode Distribution White Paper

During the past ten years we have seen increasingly rapid advances in digital methods of video recording, storage and distribution. During this same period, the technologies available for the transport of digital data over both wired and wireless media have evolved to provide dramatic increases in available bandwidth at substantially lower cost. One of the most visible results of the confluence of these two trends is the explosion of relatively low cost consumer electronics for the reception, storage and playback of video content.

Posted Dec 04 2014 (GVB-1-0275A-EN-WP) File Size: 679.7 KB

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Stereoscopic 3D Channel Branding: Controlling Z-depth White Paper

The emergence of stereoscopic 3DTV as a practical option for broadcasters has opened up a whole new set of issues in relation to best practises for channel branding graphics. Key issues include where to place the 3D graphics in terms of the perspective, or Z-depth, for optimal viewing, and how to control the Z-depth of graphics during playout to compensate for changes to the program perspective.

Posted Dec 03 2014 (GVB-1-0290A-EN-WP) File Size: 1.0 MB

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Stereoscopic 3D Channel Branding for Live Events White Paper

One of the biggest, if not the biggest, opportunity for stereoscopic 3D television is live events, such as sports and concerts. However, controlling 3D channel branding graphics in a live environment presents many challenges in order to avoid awkward perspective effects. For instance, operators need to decide where to place the 3D graphics in terms of the perspective, or Z-axis-positioning, for optimal viewing, and how to control the Z-axis-positioning of the graphics during the program to compensate for changes to the perspective.

Posted Dec 03 2014 (GVB-1-0289A-EN-WP) File Size: 772.8 KB

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Media Fingerprinting: Managing Content, Security and Quality White Paper

With ever increasing complexity in the distribution and delivery systems, how can providers manage content, without modifying it, while keeping costs low?

Media Fingerprinting is an emerging technology that is gaining momentum and has far reaching benefits for content creators, providers and distributors alike. What is Media Fingerprinting and what are its current applications? How could standardization help promote this useful technology? This paper will address all of these issues and provide some answers.

Posted Dec 03 2014 (GVB-1-0283A-EN-WP) File Size: 1.1 MB

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IPTV and Remote Signal Monitoring White Paper

For several years, television facilities have used in-house IPTV and/or CATV systems to distribute high-quality video to the offices of an internal audience of journalists, producers, executives and engineering managers. A wide range of sources from the main studio outputs to on-air feeds, from affiliate returns to competing networks and even the output of production and playout multiviewers, are made available for viewing throughout the facilities. While this has helped drive productivity, it has also required an additional set of equipment, more power and valuable rack space in the equipment room. As a broadcaster planned to expand the system's channel count, the related technology (and cost of operation) grew exponentially as well.

Posted Dec 03 2014 (GVB-1-0282A-EN-WP) File Size: 1.8 MB

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Maintaining Frame-Accurate Operation in iTX White Paper

The iTX software is designed to provide frame-accurate, scheduled playout of video and audio content using a standard IT hardware platform operating under Microsoft Windows Server. This simple statement often raises a question regarding the ability of any software application to maintain frame-accurate operation in a non-real-time environment such as that provided by the Windows Server operating system.

To address this question as it applies to iTX, it is necessary first to understand the processing environment provided by Microsoft Windows Server and other software operating systems, as well as the capabilities and limitations of modern IT hardware.

Posted Dec 03 2014 (GVB-1-0260A-EN-WP) File Size: 536.9 KB

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Centralized Multistation Operation with iTX White Paper

About ten years ago, following the widespread deployment of master control automation systems in the US station market, the concept of centralized operation of multiple stations under common ownership was evaluated and, in several cases, deployed. The results of these initial multistation centralizations were mixed, and a primary objective of significantly lower operating costs was not always achieved since the resultant savings in manpower proved inadequate to offset the cost of the required communications links at 1990s' rates. Nevertheless, several of these centralized projects continue in operation today, and a few have been expanded or upgraded with newer technology. Overall, however, the anticipated substantial benefits of station group centralization have not been fully realized, and broadcasters continue to look for new models to improve their bottom line through reduced costs.

Posted Nov 26 2014 (GVB-1-0252A-EN-WP) File Size: 1.6 MB

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Business Continuity Planning for Disaster Recovery

One of the major challenges facing broadcasters today is preparing for the continuity of their business following a possible catastrophic event that disables the operation of their transmission facility.

Posted Nov 26 2014 (GVB-1-0251A-EN-WP) File Size: 1.2 MB

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An Easier Transition to Fiber Using SFP Modules White Paper

Many broadcasters are upgrading the video/audio backbone interconnections between their different facilities such as studios and control rooms to support 3G, and this is creating an increased demand for fiber-based infrastructures to support the higher data rates. Fiber offers many substantial advantages over traditional coax, including high performance over longer distances, virtually unlimited bandwidth and reduced sensitivity to electrical interference. It also offers greater space and weight efficiency. Fortunately, it has now become much more affordable and easier to use, especially with the availability of Small Form-factor Pluggable (SFP) fiber modules, and this has led to it becoming the de-facto standard for 3G signals.

Posted Nov 25 2014 (GVB-1-0250A-EN-WP) File Size: 1.0 MB

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The Changing Dynamics of Digital Media Publishing, Live Streaming and Social Interactivity “BRIEF” White Paper

Digital media ecosystems are transitioning at the speed of light to meet consumer demand for video consumption anywhere, anytime and on any device.

This dramatically impacts broadcast media producers and distributors as workflows that were once facility-centric are now expected to seamlessly address and integrate with "Software-as-a-Service" (SaaS) or "Platform-as-a-Service" (PaaS) online cloud-based solutions. Systems for transcoding, targeted advertising, ad decisioning, rights management, social media, content management and online video all need to be considered for content delivery.

There are significant challenges facing broadcasters as they drive
both local and network facilities to maximize efficiencies and drive
throughput to address the demands of digital media.

Posted Nov 12 2014 (GVB-1-0494A-EN-WP) File Size: 1.6 MB

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Timing is Everything in Packet Video White Paper

Video production relies on precise timing. Every pixel has to align, and packet video is no exception. Clearly defining the issue is crucial to determine the best approach to timing. Even with SDI video, line buffers are commonly used in video processing equipment. The delay is short, about 15 microseconds, and inexpensive with today's technology. As 4K UHDTV increases in resolution and frame rate, the line time will decrease. An 8K picture at 120 Hz will require just under 2 microseconds. And a pixel time is 250 picoseconds, which is vastly less than transit time for video signals, whether packet based or baseband. No matter how you measure it, the timing resolution required to produce video is much less than the transit time to move it around the facility. Buffers of some type will almost always be necessary.

Posted Oct 31 2014 (GVB-1-0476A-EN-WP)

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Ethernet Technology Trends White Paper

If we're going to base our broadcast industry assumptions (and hopes) on what the Ethernet can deliver in terms of connectivity, transport and the IP technology that runs on it, we need to examine where it's heading. Can it cope? Will it cope? Let's find out by understanding some fundamental truths of current and forecast trends for the Ethernet and the traffic lanes it provides for data signals.

Posted Oct 31 2014 (GVB-1-0475A-EN-WP)

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Truck Challenge White Paper

The purpose of this study was to measure the technological challenges of mobile TV production. Why measure problems? The reason is simple. If we can better understand the problems that most frequently occur during a mobile production, we will be better able to anticipate those challenges and counter them. Or, as the father of modern management, Peter Drucker, once said, "That which gets measured, improves."

The study targeted high-end sports production professionals involved in mobile production. Our goal was to aggregate the experience of hundreds of people who work in, or manage, mobile productions, and arrive at a universal truth about which operational areas are most challenging. We interviewed industry experts from mobile production companies both large and small, and surveyed professionals at broadcast and cable networks, as well as mobile production companies.

Posted Oct 31 2014 (GVB-1-0327A-EN-WP) File Size: 1.2 MB

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The Spring of the IP Technology Transition for Broadcast Television Production White Paper

We all know that Ethernet and IP underpin the Internet and form one of the most disruptive technologies in the history of mankind. Insatiable consumer demand for content continues to fuel the development of ever faster networks like hydrogen fusion fuels the sun. As it stands today, the bandwidth required for data networking equals — and in many cases exceeds — the bandwidth requirements for full bandwidth, real-time video.

Posted Oct 31 2014 (GVB-1-0271A-EN-WP)

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Switching and Routing Signals in the IP Transition White Paper

Video signals need bridges to get, well, to the other side. However, what constitutes the "other side" is becoming increasingly ambiguous. Hence, a video bridge essentially needs to be directionally all-encompassing, meaning that it is capable of allowing a signal to enter, traverse and exit at any point — or points — required.

Posted Oct 31 2014 (GVB-1-0269A-EN-WP)

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Grass Valley Does IP

IP signal transport is coming to broadcast and media infrastructures. This whitepaper examines Grass Valley's role in this transition, how to smoothly bridge-transition to IP and how the strength of Grass Valley and its parent company Belden can provide a level of trust and confidence as you prepare for your IP future.

Posted Oct 29 2014 (GVB-1-0464A-EN-WP) File Size: 1003.2 KB

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